The Science Behind the Nutritional Content of Microgreens

The Science Behind the Nutritional Content of Microgreens

While we often associate nutrient-rich foods with their mature counterparts, there's a hidden gem in the world of plant-based nutrition: microgreens. These tiny greens, harvested at an early stage of growth when they have developed their first true leaves, offer an exceptional nutritional quality that rivals that of their mature plant counterparts. 

Microgreens have gained significant popularity in recent years due to their remarkable nutritional value and intense flavor. Despite their small size, microgreens pack a powerful punch when it comes to nutritional content. In this blog, we will delve into the fascinating science behind the nutrient content of microgreens, exploring their unique characteristics, benefits, and how they can be an excellent addition to your diet.

Concentrated Nutrients:

Microgreens are packed with nutrition, containing up to 40 times more concentrated nutrients than their mature counterparts. Studies have found that the nutritional content of microgreens can vary significantly depending on the variety and growing conditions. That being said, microgreens tend to be rich in vitamins A, C, E, and K, as well as iron and calcium.

The nutrient levels depend on the type of green being grown. Red cabbage microgreens contain high levels of vitamin C, while kale microgreens are rich in iron and calcium. Additionally, some varieties such as broccoli microgreens are high in sulforaphane, an antioxidant compound with potential health benefits including cancer prevention and anti-inflammatory effects.

Phytochemicals and Antioxidants:

 are packed with phytochemicals and antioxidants that can have numerous health benefits. Phytochemicals are compounds found in plants that provide many of the protective properties of fruits and vegetables. These compounds, such as polyphenols, flavonoids, and carotenoids, help protect cells from damage by neutralizing free radicals. Free radicals can lead to oxidative stress, which is linked to several chronic diseases.

Microgreens are also rich in antioxidants, which help protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. Antioxidants can be found in many plant foods, but microgreens tend to have higher levels than their mature counterparts. Studies have found that some varieties of microgreens contain up to nine times more antioxidants than the mature version of the same plant.


Vitamin and Mineral Content:

Microgreens, a form of edible vegetation harvested just after the first set of true leaves appear, offer a nutritional punch that surpasses their size. Rich in vitamins and minerals, microgreens are one of the most nutrient-dense food sources available.

Vitamin content is especially high in microgreens. Some common types of microgreens boast up to 40 times more vitamins than their mature counterparts. Vitamins A, C, E, and K are particularly abundant in microgreens. Additionally, many microgreens are rich in minerals such as iron and calcium.

Digestibility and Bioavailability:

The young and tender leaves of microgreens are easier to digest compared to mature vegetables. Additionally, certain studies have suggested that the bioavailability of certain essential nutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, may be enhanced in microgreens. This means that the body can more efficiently absorb and utilize the nutrients present in microgreens, maximizing their health benefits.

Plant-specific Compounds:

Each microgreen variety possesses its unique combination of nutrients and bioactive compounds. For example, broccoli microgreens are known for their high sulforaphane content, a compound with potent anticancer properties. Radish microgreens, on the other hand, are rich in glucosinolates, which have been linked to improved cardiovascular health.

Growing Conditions and Nutrient Content:

The nutritional content of microgreens can be influenced by various factors, including the growing conditions. Factors such as light intensity, temperature, and nutrient availability can impact the nutrient profile of microgreens. Providing optimal growing conditions, such as adequate light and nutrient-rich growing mediums, can help maximize the nutritional content of your homegrown microgreens.


Health Benefits of Microgreens:

  1. High in Nutrients: Despite their small size, microgreens are packed with a concentrated amount of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. They can contain up to 40 times more nutrients than their mature counterparts.
  2. Antioxidant activity: Antioxidant contents are known for their potential to reduce the risk of chronic diseases, including heart disease, certain cancers, and neurodegenerative disorders.
  3. Anti-Inflammatory Properties: Including these microgreens in your diet may help reduce inflammation in the body, which is associated with chronic diseases like arthritis, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.
  4. Digestive Health: Microgreens are a great source of dietary fiber, which supports healthy digestion and regular bowel movements.
  5. Heart Health: Several microgreens, including kale and spinach, are rich in nutrients that reduce the risk of heart disease. These greens are often high in potassium, which helps regulate blood pressure, and contain heart-healthy compounds like folate, vitamin K, and lutein.
  6. Weight Management: Incorporating microgreens into a balanced diet can aid in weight management. Their low-calorie content and high fiber content can help increase satiety, reduce hunger cravings, and promote healthy weight loss or maintenance.
  7. Improves cognitive function: Studies have shown that microgreens contain high levels of antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, and amino acids which can help to boost brain activity and protect the brain from oxidative damage.
  8. Anticancer properties: Microgreens are gaining popularity for their potent health benefits, including anti-cancer properties. Studies have shown that microgreens contain higher levels of antioxidants and other beneficial compounds than their mature counterparts, making them a powerful tool in the fight against various types of cancer.

Types of microgreens:

There is a wide variety of microgreens available, each offering its unique flavor profile and nutritional composition. Here are some microgreen varieties:

  1. Fenugreek microgreens: Fenugreek microgreens have high nutritional quality. They are packed with vitamins and minerals, including iron, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, vitamins A and C.
  2. Kale microgreen: Kale microgreens have a milder flavor compared to mature leaves of kale and are packed with high nutrient levels of vitamins A, C, and K, as well as minerals like calcium and iron.
  3. Radish: Radish microgreen is a nutritious and flavorful addition to a variety of dishes. Radish microgreen is high in vitamins and minerals, such as vitamin C, folate, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and iron.
  4. Broccoli: Broccoli microgreens have a mild, slightly sweet taste. They are an excellent source of antioxidants, including sulforaphane, which has been linked to various health benefits, including potential cancer prevention.
  5. Amaranth microgreen: Amaranth microgreens are a nutrition powerhouse that is loaded with essential vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. They are a rich source of calcium, magnesium, iron, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, manganese, copper, and vitamins A and C.

How to grow microgreens at home:

Growing microgreens at home is a simple process. Here's a step-by-step guide on how to grow microgreens:

  1. Select Seeds: Choose the type of microgreen seeds you want to grow. Popular options include broccoli, kale, radish, and sunflower. Ensure that the seeds are specifically labeled for microgreen production.
  2. Prepare Containers: Select shallow containers or trays with drainage holes. You can use plastic trays, seedling trays, or even repurpose containers like shallow trays or salad containers. Clean and sanitize the containers before use.
  3. Fill with Growing Medium: Fill the containers with a growing medium such as a soilless seed-starting mix, coconut coir, or vermiculite. Ensure the medium is moist but not waterlogged.
  4. Sow the Seeds: Evenly scatter the seeds over the prepared containers, ensuring good coverage but without overcrowding. Gently press the seeds into the growing medium.
  5. Water and Cover: Water the seeds lightly using a spray bottle. Cover the containers with a plastic lid or plastic wrap to create a humid environment for germination. This encourages the rapid growth of microgreens.
  6. Remove Cover and Provide Light: Once the seeds have germinated and the sprouts have grown a couple of inches tall, remove the cover. Place the containers in a location with bright, indirect light sources or provide artificial grow lights for about 12-16 hours a day for proper growth.
  7. Harvesting: When the microgreens reach proper growth, usually around 1-3 inches, they are ready to be harvested. Use clean scissors or a sharp knife to cut the greens just above the soil level.

In conclusion, microgreens have emerged as a powerful functional food with remarkable nutritional effects on human health. These vegetable greens, despite their small size, boast an impressive array of vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals that contribute to their beneficial effects on well-being. The concentrated amounts of vitamins found in microgreens make them a valuable addition to any diet, providing a convenient and delicious way to boost nutrient intake. Whether incorporated into salads, or sandwiches or used as garnishes, microgreens offer a versatile and nutrient-dense option that can enhance the nutritional profile of various food products. With their exceptional nutritional content and potential health benefits, microgreen plants have rightfully earned their place as an important component of a healthy and balanced diet. So, embrace the power of microgreens and harness their potential to nourish your body and support your journey toward optimal health.

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Extra reading

Complete guide to microgreens

Green Leafy vegetables for a Quick harvest

Microgreens: Health Benefits, Nutrition, and How to Grow Them at Home

The Best Fast-Growing Vegetables for Quick Harvest

Herbs that you can grow at home


Happy Gardening!

Dr. Vandana K.