Coffee plant growing in India is quite simple and the coffee plantation in Coorg is quite famous. Read on to know more details about the coffee plant.
Coffee plant belongs to the family Rubiaceae. The coffee plant (Coffea robusta) originated from Ethiopia and was cultivated in Yemen before spreading throughout Africa and Asia. Today, over 80% of the world’s supply comes from Brazil, Colombia, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Kenya.
The coffee plant has been cultivated for thousands of years, and was first discovered in Ethiopia. Today, coffee beans come from all over the world and are grown in different regions depending on climate conditions. The best quality beans are produced in high altitudes where temperatures remain stable throughout the year.
Coffee has become a part of our daily lives. Whether you drink coffee or not, chances are you've heard of its health benefits. Coffee contains caffeine, antioxidants, and other nutrients that promote good health.
There are several types of coffee beans, such as Arabica, Robusta, and Liberica. Each type of bean produces a unique flavor profile. Some coffees contain less caffeine than others.
The caffeine content of coffee varies depending on the variety of coffee bean used, roasting level, brewing method, and serving size. A typical brewed cup of coffee contains about 100–200 milligrams of caffeine. However, this number can vary significantly based on the variety of coffee beans used. An average cup of coffee may have anywhere from 50-300mg of caffeine.
How to grow coffee plant
Coffee plants require lots of care and attention to thrive. They also produce some of the best tasting beans around. So, if you're looking to grow your own coffee beans, here are some tips to make sure you get the best results.
1. Choose the Right Variety
Coffee plants come in different varieties, but all of them share certain traits. For instance, Arabica coffee plants tend to be taller and bushier than Robusta coffee plants. Both are grown primarily for their bean yield, so choose a variety based on how much you'd like to harvest.
2. Planting Time Matters
Plant seeds indoors six weeks before the last frost date. When planting outdoors, wait until after the soil warms up.
3. Water Wisely
Watering too frequently can cause roots to rot. Instead, water when the soil feels dry.
Mulching keeps weeds under control and prevents evaporation. Use mulch only during the growing season; remove it after the first fall frost.
5. Harvest Carefully
Harvested beans must be dried properly. To prevent mold, store them in airtight containers.
6. Dry Beans Properly
Dry beans should feel firm and light. If they feel heavy, they may contain moisture.
7. Roast Well
Roasting beans correctly brings out their flavor. Start roasting beans when they reach between 195°F and 205°F.
8. Store Beans
Store roasted beans in airtight containers. Don't refrigerate them.
Coffee plant diseases
Coffee plants are susceptible to several fungal diseases such as coffee leaf rust, which causes leaves to turn yellow and fall off. Other fungal diseases include coffee cherry disease, which causes fruit to drop from trees, and coffee wilt, which kills coffee plants.
Pharmacology of coffee plant
Coffee plants contain caffeine which is responsible for stimulating the central nervous system. The leaves of the coffee plant also contain chlorogenic acid which has anti-oxidant properties.
Coffee contains magnesium, potassium, calcium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, phosphorus, sodium, vitamin B6, folate, niacin, riboflavin, thiamin, pantothenic acid, biotin, choline, and beta carotene.
Coffee is rich in polyphenols, flavonoids, and other bioactive components.
Health Benefits of Coffee
Caffeine is one of the most widely studied substances for its potential health benefits. It is found naturally in many foods including tea, chocolate, cocoa, and fruits. Caffeine is also added to many beverages like soda, energy drinks, and even medications.
- Caffeine acts by blocking adenosine receptors in your brain. Adenosine is a neurotransmitter that helps regulate sleep cycles. When caffeine binds with these receptors it prevents adenosine from binding and therefore keeps you awake longer. This is why people who drink caffeinated beverages before bedtime tend to wake up feeling groggy.
- Caffeine may help prevent migraines. In fact, studies show that caffeine reduces migraine headaches when taken within two hours of their onset.
- Caffeine increases alertness and improves concentration. Studies suggest that caffeine may improve memory and learning ability.
- Caffeinol, an antioxidant compound found in coffee, may reduce the risk of heart disease.
- Caffeic acid, another antioxidant compound found in coffee beans, may protect against cancer.
- Chlorogenic acids, compounds found in coffee beans, have anti-inflammatory properties.
- Coffee may lower cholesterol levels.
- Coffee may boost metabolism. Drinking coffee regularly may increase metabolic rate by 10%.
- Coffee contains antioxidants called polyphenols. These antioxidants may help fight free radicals that cause cell damage. Free radicals are produced during normal body processes and can lead to diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.
- Coffee plants contain caffeine which is a stimulant. Caffeine helps increase alertness, concentration, energy levels, and improves moods. The caffeine also acts as a diuretic, meaning it increases urine production. This is why drinking coffee after exercise may help reduce muscle cramps.
Dr. Vandana K.